Monthly Archives: August 2012

Summer Paralympic Games Mascots (1960 – 2008)

Following on from the last post about Paralympic logos here are all of the Paralympic mascots used at the summer Paralympic Games:

Rome 1960 – No Known Mascot

Tokyo 1964 – No Known Mascot

Tel Aviv 1968 – No Known Mascot

Heidelberg 1972 – No Known Mascot

Toronto 1976 – No Known Mascot

Arnhem 1980

The organisers of the Games decided upon the a pair of squirrels to be the mascots for the Games, apparently because a squirrel, in its lifetime, gets many hard nuts to crack, not unlike people with disabilities who, on a different level, face many problems as well. They chose to have a pair of squirrels because men and women take part in the Games. They then invited members of the public to submit designs for the squirrels and this contest was won by Mrs Opheusden of St Michielsgestel.

 

New York 1984

Designed by Maryanne McGrath Higens, a Long Beach Resident who taught art at the Lawrence, L.I. Junior High School, Dan D. Lion, is a friendly Lion in a jogging suit and running shoes and he wears the logo of the Games on his jacket. The children of the Human Resources School in Albertson, L.I. took on the project of providing a name for the mascot and held a full-scale election complete with posters, banners, electioneering and speeches. The race, with nominations from every class was very close. The winning name was the suggestion of the ninth graders in the class of Mary Anne Cicchillo.

Stoke Mandeville 1984 – No Known Mascot

Seoul 1988

According to the organisers of the Seoul Paralympic Games bears are well known for their courage and their wisdom and are depicted in the star constellations known as the Great Bear and the Little Bear. The two ‘moon-bears’ as the organisers describe them, are depicted with the legs tied together in order to show that all mankind can live together peacefully and vigorously whilst still co-operating with each other fully. The Gomdoori, as they were named, were meant to depict the grand celebration of human achievement and accomplishment that the organisers envisaged the Seoul Paralympic Games would be.

Barcelona 1992

Petra, as the mascot was called, was designed by Javier Mariscal. Petra was designed to appear as a friendly-looking, cheerful character who apparently ‘is clever, extroverted, thinks for herself and has many friends. She is a little stubborn, has an impressive store of inner energy and never cries’.

Madrid 1992

The mascot for the Games, ANDY, was a stylised heart meant to represent the heartiness, solidarity and friendship that would preside over the Games and which would keep beating towards full and complete integration of athletes with an intellectual disability at the next Paralympic Games in Atlanta four years later.

Atlanta 1996

Blaze, an American Bald Eagle, is representative of the Phoenix that rose, renewed, from its own ashes, which may be interpreted as the rebirth of the human spirit through achievement in sport.

Sydney 2000

The Mascot for the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games was Lizzie, the frill-necked lizard, which was chosen to carry the Paralympic messages of performance, power and pride. Lizzie’s strength, determination and attitude symbolise all Paralympians. Lizzie’s frill is shaped as the map of Australia with its green and gold colours, while her body is the red ochre colour of the land.

Athens 2004

The creator of Proteas, Spyros Gogos, was asked to create a mascot that would express the four values of the Athens Paralympics: strength, pursuit, inspiration and celebration. In addition, he tried to create a mascot expressing the Greek nature of the competitions and a differentiation from mascots of previous Games. Proteas’ name is connected with the Greek adjective “protos”, meaning “first in rank” or “excellent”. The notion of excellence is something the mascot shares with Paralympians, who succeed in achieving ever-higher standards of performance.

Beijing 2008

The Official Mascot of the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games, Fu Niu Lele, was unveiled at a grand ceremony at the foot of the Great Wall on September 6th 2006, marking exactly two years to the opening ceremony of the Paralympic Games. “Fu” means “blessing”, “Niu” means “cow” and “Lele” means “happiness”. A modern cartoon figure in traditional Chinese colours Fu Niu Lele was designed by Wu Guanying, Professor at the Academy of Art and Design at Tsinghua University and apparently derives its inspiration from the farming and cultivation culture prevalent in ancient Chinese civilisation. Fu Niu Lele aims to symbolise the indomitable spirit of Paralympians and their resolve to be self-reliant. It also aims to symbolise the harmonious co-existence between man and nature.

 

 

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Summer Paralympic Games Logos (1960 – 2008)

I was requested to do this post by an old friend – so here it is Eli!

Rome 1960

No special logo was designed for these Games. They simply used the Stoke Mandeville Games logo of a wheelchair wheel wrapped around the world, which had been used at Stoke Mandeville for at least five years previously.

Tokyo 1964

The logo chosen by the Japanese for the Tokyo Games was full of symbolism. An outline of the white dove of peace was used to symbolise love. The logo also incorporated five rings. The word for ring in Japanese is ‘wa’ which has two meanings. It can mean ring, but it also means ‘harmony’. The rings also symbolise wheelchairs. Original the rings were laid out in a ‘W’ formation like the Olympic rings, but following a complaint from the IOC the design was changed to a ‘V’ shape to represent the athletes’ victory in overcoming the problems in their lives

Tel Aviv 1968

The logo used in Tel Aviv was simply an amalgamation of the three interlocking wheelchair wheels (representing Friendship, Unity and Sportsmanship) used by the Stoke Mandeville Games at the time and the term I.S.M.G. 1968 (International Stoke Mandeville Games 1968)

Heidelberg 1972

According to a member of the Heidelberg Organising Committee the logo for the 1972 Games was derived from the outline of a photograph of an un-named local archer

Toronto 1976

Designed by Peter G. Robinson, a Toronto graphics designer and Chairman of the Games Graphics Committee, the logo consisted of three elements i. an equilateral triangle with rounded corners representing the pyramid of the international sports movement for the disabled. This was made up of three colours with each colour representing a participating impairment group – blue (paraplegics), magenta (amputees) and orange/red (blind). ii. A pictogram of a human figure with arms raised in a gesture of achievement and representing the handicapped (sic) rising above disability through participation in sport and iii. three interlocking rings derived from the traditional symbol of the Stoke Mandeville Games (three wheelchair wheels representing friendship, unity and sportsmanship). Apparently the three rings may also be interpreted as deriving from the traditional five-ring symbol of the Olympic movement, with the loss of two rings symbolically representing some disability.

Arnhem 1980

The logo used by the organising committee was designed by Joop Smits of the PRAD advertising agency. It represents an unfurled Dutch flag adorned with the number ‘80’ to represent the year of the Games. The ‘80’ is also made up of three interlocking rings, which, as with previous Games were meant to represent Friendship, Unity and Sportsmanship.

New York 1984

On Saturday 16th June Keven Lewis, Director of Wheelchair Sports for the Los Angeles Olympic Organising Committee (LAOOC) presented the Games Director Michael Mushett with a Torch used in the Los Angeles Olympic Games for use in the opening ceremony the following day. This was the first time this had ever happened and signified the growing links between the Olympic movement and the fledgling Paralympic movement. It is appropriate then that the logo for the Games in New York was a flaming torch.

Stoke Mandeville 1984

The organisers reverted to using the same logo as the one used in the very early days of the Stoke Mandeville Games in the mid- to late 1950s and the very first Paralympic Games in Rome 1960. The fact that the Games were once again of spinal cord injuries only also enabled the organisers to officially attach the term Paralympic to the Games in its original meaning of ‘paraplegic Olympics’.

Seoul 1988

The logo was designed by Sung Nak-hoon and consisted of five traditional Korean decorative motifs known as tae-geuks, which were meant to represent the five oceans and the five continents. They were arranged in a ‘W’ configuration meant to represent the first letter of the word ‘World’ in order to represent the harmony and unity of the disabled worldwide through sport. Their horizontal configuration represented equality and humanity, and the wave shape expressed the willingness and determination of the disabled to become fully active.

Barcelona 1992

Designed by Josep Maria Trias, the logo was, according to the organising committee, ‘a symbolic and figurative design, dynamic in form and strongly Mediterranean in character’. It was based upon a symbolic depiction of a human figure using a wheelchair and the colours are meant to represent the blue of the Mediterranean, the yellow of the sun and the red of life itself.Madrid 1992

The Games in Madrid actually used two logos. The first was the five tae guk design first used in Seoul and was, at that time, the logo for the International Paralympic Committee. The second, based upon the five Olympic colours, depicts an energetic figure with arms raised as a sign of joy, triumph and happiness at the opportunity to take part in these Games and break the ribbon of that was meant to depict the barriers that had thus far prevented athletes with intellectual disabilities from participating in the Games.

 and  

Atlanta 1996

Entitled ‘Starfire’ the logo for the Atlanta Paralympics was meant to represent the fulfilment of an athlete’s dream. It may be interpreted as the star being the athlete and the fire being the passion that burns in the heart to fulfil their dreams. The fifth point of the star, revealed by the ‘dynamic flow of the rings’ represents the fulfilment of the athletes’ quest.

Sydney 2000

The Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games logo embodies the vitality of Sydney, the spirit of Australia and the ability and achievement of the Paralympic athlete. The logo depicts a dynamic human form — represented by three graphic shapes — leaping triumphantly forward and “breaking through” towards the Paralympic Games in 2000. It also portrays the Paralympic torch and echoes the sails of Sydney’s greatest landmark, the Opera House. The logo is cast in three of the unique colours of Australia: the rich blue of Sydney Harbour, the warm red of the earth, and the lush green of the forest.

Athens 2004

The logo aims to embody the strength and determination of the Paralympic athlete. It features the profile of an athlete – male or female – looking forward, symbolising optimism for the future. At the same time, this human face attempts to reflect the individual’s willpower and determination to succeed in all pursuits. The face’s lines are smooth, its colour a warm and bright orange – harbinger of the great celebration to come.

Beijing 2008

Dubbed ‘Sky, Earth and Human Beings’ and unveiled during a grand ceremony at the China Millennium Monument on July 13, 2004 in Beijing, the logo for the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games is in the form of an athlete in motion. It is intended to embody the tremendous efforts that persons with a disability have to make in sport as well as in everyday life. It is typically Chinese in its form and style and the three colours used represent the sun (red), the sky (blue) and the earth (green). They are also intended to reflect the integration of heart, body and spirit, which are at the core of Chinese culture as well as the Paralympic Games.

 

All-time Paralympic medal winning nations at the summer Paralympic Games (1960-2008)

Since the first Games in Rome in 1960 a total of 17547 known Paralympic medals have been awarded at summer Paralympic Games up to and including Beijing 2008. The table below also includes the Paralympic Games for the intellectually disabled held in Madrid in 1992, which is often over-looked or ignored by most writers on the subject

  Country Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 USA 704 631 642 1977
2 Great Britain 529 507 496 1532
3 Germany 469 467 444 1380
4 Canada 379 304 320 1003
5 France 330 323 311 964
6 Australia 327 350 315 992
7 Netherlands 250 216 185 651
8 Poland 241 229 188 658
9 China 236 188 134 558
10 Sweden 223 215 164 602
11 Spain 196 190 204 590
12 Italy 134 151 178 463
13 Israel 122 120 122 364
14 Japan 109 110 118 337
15 Austria 106 117 118 341
16 Norway 106 101 87 294
17 South Africa 102 76 73 251
18 South Korea 110 88 83 281
19 Denmark 97 88 102 287
20 Mexico 87 84 81 252
21 Switzerland 81 89 94 264
22 Belgium 77 83 76 236
23 Finland 69 94 101 264
24 New Zealand 59 44 48 151
25 Russia 55 49 62 166
26 Ireland 54 59 85 198
27 Brazil 53 72 67 192
28 Ukraine 52 54 67 173
29 Egypt 42 54 54 150
30 Czech Republic 39 33 39 111
31 Iran 38 21 30 89
32 Hong Kong 35 31 41 107
33 Argentina 31 62 59 152
34 Hungary 27 34 48 109
35 Portugal 25 32 33 90
36 Iceland 24 19 41 84
37 Belarus 23 30 25 78
38 Tunisia 23 23 9 55
39 Cuba 22 13 18 53
40 Nigeria 22 11 12 45
41 Yugoslavia 21 22 32 75
42 USSR 21 20 15 56
43 Rhodesia 21 18 15 54
44 Jamaica 20 16 18 54
45 Unified Team 16 14 15 45
46 Kenya 16 14 11 41
47 Algeria 15 7 16 38
48 Greece 13 31 25 69
49 Slovakia 12 15 15 42
50 Kuwait 10 17 22 49
51 Romania 10 7 7 24
52 Thailand 9 16 18 43
53 Morocco 6 5 3 14
54 Chinese Taipei 5 4 10 19
55 Uruguay 5 4 6 15
56 Lithuania 4 11 15 30
57 Estonia 4 8 7 19
58 Czechoslovakia 4 5 8 17
59 Azerbaijan 4 5 6 15
60 Bulgaria 4 5 2 11
61 Indonesia 4 4 9 17
62 Independent Paralympic Participants 4 3 1 8
63 Slovenia 3 7 9 19
64 Dominican Republic 3 6 1 10
65 Panama 3 4 1 8
66 Angola 3 3 0 6
67 Croatia 3 1 5 9
68 Peru 3 1 4 8
69 CIS 3 1 1 5
70 Cote d’Ivoire 3 0 1 4
71 Zimbabwe 2 9 6 17
72 Latvia 2 3 4 9
73 Burma 2 3 2 7
74 India 2 2 3 7
75 Cyprus 2 2 1 5
76 Turkey 2 0 2 4
77 Trinidad and Tobago 2 0 1 3
78 Faroe Islands 1 7 5 13
79 Jordan 1 5 5 11
80 United Arab Emirates 1 5 3 9
81 Luxembourg 1 4 2 7
82 Bahrain 1 3 5 9
83 Venezuela 1 2 6 9
84 Puerto Rico 1 2 4 7
85 Bosnia-Herzegovina 1 2 0 3
86 Colombia 1 1 2 4
87 Singapore 1 1 2 4
88 Saudi Arabia 1 1 0 2
89 Guatemala 1 0 1 2
90 Botswana 1 0 0 1
91 Chile 1 0 0 1
92 Mongolia 1 0 0 1
93 Sudan 1 0 0 1
94 Malta 0 2 5 7
95 Bahamas 0 2 3 5
96 Iraq 0 2 3 5
97 Serbia 0 2 0 2
98 Malaysia 0 1 4 5
99 Palestine 0 1 2 3
100 Macedonia 0 1 0 1
101 Pakistan 0 1 0 1
102 Papua New Guinea 0 1 0 1
103 Lebanon 0 0 2 2
104 Moldova 0 0 2 2
105 Serbia and Montenegro 0 0 2 2
106 Ecuador 0 0 1 1
107 Laos 0 0 1 1
108 Libya 0 0 1 1
109 Namibia 0 0 1 1
110 Philippines 0 0 1 1
111 Rwanda 0 0 1 1
112 Syria 0 0 1 1
    5990 5801 5756 17547

It should be noted that the total for Germany (3rd overall) includes all medals won by the former Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (DDR)

It should also be noted that, as mentioned in previous posts, the numbers here will on occasion deviate from the totals shown on the International Paralympic Committee historical data-base as a; IPC fail to recognise the Games in Madrid 1992 and b; throughout my research I have discovered results missing from official results books and the IPC database, but have managed to prove their validity. These results have been passed on to IPC, some more than three years ago, but IPC appear to have chosen not to act on this information despite all necessary proof being provided.